The term pornography refers to all those materials, images or reproductions depicting sexual acts in order to cause sexual arousal of the receiver. Since the 1970′s, films and photographs with such explicit sexual content received the classification X, to differentiate it from the more gentle eroticism (S).
The term ‘pornography’ comes from the Greek words πόρνη («pornē», «prostitute») and γράφειν («gráphein», «record, write, illustrate») and the suffix – ία (-ia, «status, property, place of “), therefore having the meaning of ‘description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution’. It must be said, however, that the term is of recent onset, as in Ancient Greece was never used the word ‘pornography’ and the oldest use of which it transpires is, in French, of the late 1800′s.
Pornography and erotic representations are more ancient civilization, going back to times as ancient and primitive of human history as the era of the Paleolithic.1 The modern concept of pornography, which prevails to the present day, is defined from the mass marketing of erotic material in the 19th century during the period of the Victorian era, leaving his erotico-artistico character and increasing its distribution from production mass defined by the Second Industrial Revolution.2 3 Modern pornography gets its greater presence from the Sexual Revolution (Porno Chic was) during the 1970′s, to the present day.3 4
Venus of Willendorf (c. 25,000 A.E.C).
In the primitive society of homo sapiens nomadic, belonging to the Paleolithicperiod, develops magical thinking and the bases empirical as foundations of the religions of primitive, based human creationism which noted animal reproductive capabilities.1 5 Primitive tribes established the cult totemic towards the structures anatomical devoted to procreation; the cult towards the uterus (object of worship due to its ability to retain the fetus and its placenta) and the cult phallic (considered as “depositor’s life”).6 7 Based on the ancient cults, it is assumed that the paleoiticos of Venus figurineslike the Venus of Willendorf, evoke human admiration for genitals, maternity, fertility and eroticism, through you breasts and buttocks of exaggerated proportions, with a possible intention of representing pornography.1 8
The virtues of sexuality in a number of guises as marriage, masturbation, group sex, polygamy and homosexuality are sobreentendían in the classical cultures of India.9 10 Understood that sex, especially in philosophies such as Tantra, was part of the natural human divinity and, occasionally, represented a path to spiritual enlightenment.9 11 According to the religious views of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, much of the religious practices and spiritual philosophies magnify the importance of sexual activity through stories with strong erotic overtones and practices; as the Ashvamedha Yajna of the Rigveda .12 13 The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana (c. 400-200 BCE) is the epitome of sexuality of ancient India, book describing sexual practices that were considered to be ideal for a heterosexual couple in marriage.9 14
The ancient India society was unaccustomed to sexuality and nudity, to the extent translate it into much of the sacred art decorating the ceremonial centers.9 12 In the exterior reliefs adorning Khajuraho is possible to observe different sexual representations that represent human sexuality and sexuality between deities.15 The epic poems of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata (c. 1500 B.C.E.) contained several erotic allusions and both were decisive in the construction of the sexualized societies of the ancient Near East, directly influencing policies and sexual morals of culture culture, Japanese china and the cultures Tibetan.9 16 In China, the first sex manuals and erotic poems date back to 200 BC, based on the theological views on the complementarity of genera and strongly influenced by Indian culture texts, likewise, are graphic representations of sex in the folk art such as painting and ceramics.17 18
Detail on Greek pottery of a prostitute and a client (c. 480 B.C.E.).
Classical societies in Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire adopted human sexuality as the basis for artistic expression. In art Classic it takes a strong artistico-estetica fixation by the representation of the mythological creatures and the representation of the human body, where the female body represented the attributes of beauty and fertility, and the male body represented attributes the strength and virility.19 Within Greek mythology deities and stories that introduced the “divine sexuality” and that resorting to issues such as polygamy, homosexuality, pedophilia, sexual abuse, relationships were master-slave, group sex, transgender, intersex and bestiality.19 20 Classical art was frequently phallocentric, positioning the genitals as a central form of plastic arts (painting, sculpture, ceramic and mosaic) in probably pornographic intent.21
The representation of sex scenes was common in the popular art of the Roman Empire, whose views about sexuality morally approached the visions of the Greek empire. One of the clearest examples of the sexual morals of the ancient Roman Empire are the details of the frescoes of the Suburban baths at Pompeii, where you can see scenes with acts of a sexual nature that include forms of group sex, sex femenino-femenino, cunnilingus , and anal sex male. Other clear examples are the details homoerotic of the Copa Warren (c. 1st century) and the Roman tradition of fascinus .22 23 Classic erotic literature includes works as Erothikos of Plutarch, Thesmophoriazusae of Aristophanes and Satyrikon of Petronius; In addition to authors such as: Straton of Sardis, Sappho of Lesbos, Automedon, Filodemo of Gadara, Marcus Argentarius, Gaius Valerius Catullus, Propertius, Tibullus, Ovid, Marco Valerio Marcial, 10th June Juvenal and Priapeia.22 
In the middle ages, with the dominance of Christianity, was understood to pornography as a form of lust and, therefore, as a mortal sin; masturbation, fornication, sodomy, adultery and prostitution were considered offenses “criminals” or “unnatural” that were corrected with the religious punishments and even torture and death in the Inquisition.24 Art in the Middle Ages was defined in the theocentric style, through biblical religious allusions to passage and offerings that exalted divine perfection, so nude and sex were incompatible with religious images.25 Erotic literature appears, under controversy, in the last centuries of the middle ages in works as the Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio, introducing erotic fiction during the post-classic, besides Facetiae of Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (15th century) and History of Duobus Amantibus (1444) of Pius II (1353).
Jupiter Junon et (16th century) of Agostino Carracci.
Pornography, in a manner similar to the current form (produced in mass pornography), appears in the 16th century during the first years of the Renaissance Italian culture of the printing press , period in which the reproduction of literature and recorded increase in a significant way due to the development of medieval printing developed Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century.3 The birth of pornography in the period of the culture of the printing press is defined with the emergence of the pornographic engravings I Modi (1524) by Giulio Romano, engravings were published under the direction of Marcantonio Raimondi which is illustrated 16 scenes from Greco-Roman mythology that showed naked and explicit sex.26 24 The prints were confiscated and destroyed according to the orders of Pope Clement VIII, who also ordered the imprisonment of Raimondi, accusing him of “immorality”.3 The original versions disappeared, but were copied by Agostino Caracci in the mid-sixteenth century, versions that survive to date.27
Sonetti lussuriosi (1527) and Pietro Aretino Ragionamenti (1534-1536) were important works that defined the pornographic literature from the 16th century, 17TH century and 18th century. Sonetti lussuriosi was a politically incorrect pornographic prose that incorporated the art of I Modi of Giulio Romano, which was popular among the aristocracy of the 16th century.28 The Heptaméron of Marguerite of Navarre, another significant piece of print culture in the history of pornography is published in 1558. In the Visual Arts, influenced by Renaissance humanism , reappear the naked and the admiration of the human body, although pornographic art begins to distinguish itself from simply erotic art. Artists such as Michelangelo Buonarroti joined notable features homoerotic scenes that are not erotic in the religious tradition, as you can be seen in the Crucifix in Santo Spirito (1492) that shows the image of Jesus Christ completely nude and a body neotenous of teenager; or the tomb of the Pope Julius II, religious monument which is adorned by several male figures in full naked; this peculiar artistic movement marked the transition of the religious Puritanism of the middle ages to the Renaissance aesthetic admiration.24 On the other hand, artists such as Hans Baldung, Giacomo Caraglio and Agostino Carracci were taxed more explicit and less stylized including nudity and sexual scenes.24
Charon Ferrying the Shades (c. 1735) of Pierre Subleyras.
The works of Pietro Aretino continued with great popularity during the 17TH century, being translated into various languages and distributed with secrecy between European aristocrats. During the 16th century erotic literature is slowed down by different moral views about obscenity, what motivates the authors to publish works under anonymous names and with some limitation on the distribution. In the 17TH century are works as L’ École des Filles (1655) by anonymous author, anonymous author The London Jilt (1683) and Erotopolis: The Present State of Bettyland (1684) of author anonymous, but attributed to Charles Cotton; the work is known for being the first work in the genre Merryland, genre that describes the body of the woman with similar topographic and became very popular in erotic literature of the 18th century.3 28
In the 18th century is popularized the erotic art with the emergence of Rococo art and years of Baroqueart, whose eroticism was mostly subtle, moderate, resorting to nudity and scenes sobreestilizadas that marked feelings such as love, passion, happiness and anger. While the Arts you plastic is redefined with subtle and sleek eroticism, literature became more explicit and sexual by the current growing socio-political that traditional religious moral, through philosophies such as the anti-clericalismo, atheism and the ideas of the enlightenment challenged.
Some erotic novels of the 18th century include: Les bijoux Indiscrets (1747) by Denis Diderot, Thérèse Philosophe (1748) of Jean-Baptiste de Boyer and the Souriciere. The Mousetrap. Facetious and Sentimental tour through part of Austrian Flanders and France (1794) of “Timothy Touchit”. The novel John Cleland Fanny Hill (1748) is one of the most important erotic novels of the story; novel speaks drama of the life of a young prostitute who falls for a client.22 Exponents philosophical as the Marquis de Sade were important for the development of erotic literature, whose literary works such as Justine ou les Malheurs of the Vertu (1787) and Les 120 Journées de Sodome (1785), are characterized by scenarios highly erotic, normally accompanied by other social situations as sex crimes (rape, pedophilia, sadism, mutilation and sexual Rapture ), as well as subjects socially inaceptados the time as homosexualitydomination, bondage, urolagnia and coprophagia.29
In the French Revolution, Queen Marie Antoinette was the product of social teasing and his image was paid to be depicted as a prostitute in erotic as Le Godmiché Royal and L’Autrichienne in Goguettespamphlets. In the same way, as a social attack, were represented various aristocrats and clergymen to challenge the political system and benefit the Revolution movement.30
The concept of pornography that has until today is defined in the was the 19th century Victorian, concept that will take a new definition with the invention and the popularity of photography to replace the works of literary fiction and arts that predominated in the previous centuries.30 Pornography, from the Victorian was, was defined by its production on a larger scale, what motivated Governments to establish laws that prohibit and regulate the production and distribution of this, based on religious traditions to promote prudence and to curb Vice and obscenity among the society.31 The morals of Victorian society encouraged the authors of pornography to distribute their works in the form of smuggling between select clientele; at other times, the Visual pornographic works that contain nudity (especially the female nude), were marketed according to the parameters of “art”, model that it will prevail until the Pubic wars at the end of the 1960s.
Image of De Figuris Veneris (19th century) by Édouard-Henri Avril.
Although the culture of Victorian society was defined by I cautiously and prudence, developed at the same time morales that contradict this principle socially understood, as the culture underground of the brothels and houses of entertainment.32 33 Brothels, cabarets and prostitution were among the main economic sources of the 19th century all over Europe; These establishments were gathering clientele sociamente rejected by the time as prostitutes, gamblers, consumers of alcohol, transvestistas, homosexuals and people of African descent, creating a small social gathering was formed at the same time of Victorian morality.34 35 The distribution of pornography was mainly in a commercial way in woodworking shops in the 19th century, when photographic printing costs went down significantly for mass-producing pornography with methods of mass production as the Halftone Printing, also at the point where photography achieved great popularity (about 1845, when the Daguerreotype is popularized); the main consumers of pornography in this type of establishment were men of the upper classes.3 31
With this growing popularity of consumption of pornography and often places of sex trade, began to apply various political laws pursuing any kind of immoral behavior. In 1857, the Crown of the United Kingdom publishes the Obscene Publications Act, as part of the reforms and legal requests that earned the Society for the Suppression of Vice, whose result meant the criminalization of all pornographic material and propaganda which promote immoral acts for the time (contraception, free love and homosexuality) and the arrest of its distributors under the charges of “immorality”.3 31 Similarly, in 1873, the Comstock laws in the United States, laws which had the same objective and sought the regulation of pornography and the immoral acts, as well as being fundamental in the birth of the agenda of radical feminism by the criminalization of birth control such as women’s rights are published.36
Photography by Auguste Belloc (c. 1855).
Which pornography have been criminalized, encouraged their uneven distribution also in the form of smuggling, pornographic works began to enter the market under anonymous authorship. Works such as My Seret Life (1888) and the publication The Pearl (1879-1880) were subject of disputes legal for being “obscene literature”.37 In pornographic photography are authors such as: Jean Marie Cañellas, Jean Louis Marie Eugène Durieu, Wilhelm von Plueschow, Auguste Belloc, Charles Gilhousen, Wilhelm von Gloeden, Jean-Baptiste Louis Igout, Max Koch, Pierre Louÿs, Gaudenzio Marconi, Félix-Jacques Moulin and Louis-Camille D’olivier. Related areas, illustrators like Martin van Maële and Édouard-Henri Avril performed compltamente pornographic illustrations to illustrate novels erotic and satires socio-political in independent publications.
The nude was one of the natural characteristics of Impressionism art, devoting himself to portray simple and everyday scenes, expressing the view of its author. That same naked natural formed a new standard of beauty in Victorian society during the second half of the nineteenth century, changing morals society perceived in the nude and incorporating it into a new criterion of commercial art.38 This new artistic perspective facilitated the distribution of pornography, by removing its original objective, reclassifying it as a work of art. It Olympia by Édouard Manet (1963) is one of the most significant works of the Victorian erotic art by the negative reception and legal disputes resulting in artistic society, for it is the image of a courtesan in full nude.39 Impressionist painters as Max Liebermann, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Edgar Degasand Henry Scott Tuke is highlighted in the artistic movement of Impressionism to portray everyday scenes such as bath and the playground on the beach, which contained, necessarily, scenes of nudity in your images.38 
Nude with a flute (c. 1895) of Wilhelm von Gloeden.
Another popular Foundation for the legal distribution of pornography were “illustrative purposes”. Pornography and nudity were common in studies and trials of scientific publications and illustrative encyclopedias, such as those studying tribal societies during the European occupation in Asia and Africa in the 19th century, showing the regional traditions and canons of beauty among these ethnic groups. In is current include photographs and illustrations by J. Garrigues, of Jean Geiser, Rodolphe Neuer, P. Madeleine and Lehnert & Landrock, who were devoted to the exploration of ethnic societies in South Asia for the description of their customs, taking photographs of women in the area with their traditional attire in an erotic way; These photographs were of great social commotion due to differences between the heavy Victorian clothing, and light clothing and the practice of topless women of ethnic groups in tropical areas.
By 1890, pornographic photography takes great popularity among men of class middle and upper classes, consisting mainly of photographs of women in full nude or semi-nude alone and quality sofcore, is from 1890 that begin to appear more pictures hardcore penetrative sex or oral sex between a man and a woman in most occasions. Pornography was still being distributed distorts mainly illegal pornography to homosexual men, which consisted of images of thin men between 20 and 25 years in full nude in most of its chances. Porn gay, because of the illegal nature of homosexuality in countries such as England and United States e 19th century was mainly marketed as art, by what its authors sought the representation of scenes from Greco-Roman mythology to give this a more artistic character and which highlight the “Greco-Roman beauty” which was the sophisticated aesthetics of the nascent gay culture.4
The Lumière brothers cinematograph displayed commercially in the year of 1895. It is one year after the trade publication when appears the first pornographic movie. The first stag film (old term used for pornography before its legalisation in 1968) was the French film Le Coucher de la Mariée (1896), directed by Lear and produced by Eugène Pirou, film that coming stars Louise Willy, a cabaret actress, doing a striptease and having sexuaes relations with a man.40 The stag films were a greater leap to contemporary pornography, since they introduced a new character voyeuristic so that the spectator can feel as if they were physically present at the scene, in addition to popularize video as a primary medium for the publication of commercial pornography that is up to our days.3
See also: Sexual revolution
In the 20th century pornography through various legal and social clashes that defined the contemporary concept that exists today. During the first half of the 20th century, pornography was strictly prohibited by various laws in the United States and England (major producers and consumers of pornography in the 20th and 21st century) which regulated their distribution. From the sexual revolution in the 1960 began to take a greater disclosure, due to the weakening and annulment of the laws that regulate it at the end of the 1960s, influenced by the current search for sexual rights that gave rise to the movement of the Sexual Revolution.
In 1970, the society began to get used to the different forms of sexual expression, including pornography, so pornography begins to distribute massively in different media such as video, characterized by lasting short or half and with very low production costs. The evolution of the video has been fundamental in the development of pornography in the 20th century.
It was Pre-code (1900-1929)
Commercial cinema begins to bloom in the early years of the 20th century from simple shorts that were shown in movie theaters and nickelodeons (cinemas passengers of low-cost and low-capacity) that were popular in the United States and England between 1900 and 1920. A Free Ride (1915) directed by “A Wise Guy” is one of the first pornographic films that survive to date, introducing and popularizing the songs that survive in the actual pornography as simple arguments that connect the sex scenes as well as positions and practices such as voyeurism and the threesome .41 In photography, between 1900 and 1929, are artists such as Edward Streichen, Fred Holland Day, Heinrich Zille, Anne w. Brigman, Julian Mandel, Stanislaus Walery and Jean Agélou.
Alice Prin by Julian Mandel (c. 1920).
Pre-code period was the period before the Hays Code (1934-1966) in which the regulation of the audiovisual media and the cinema was not regulated by any governmental law in United States, so the films begin to exploit themed lewd as explicit sex, nudity, crime, violence and drugs.42 This period without legal regulation allowed the broad and early development of pornographic by the mid 1920s films, period ending with the institution of the Hays code in the 1930′s and the crisis of the boom in 1929.3 Other aspects that allowed the development of pornography between 1910 and 1920 was the sexualized culture of women flapper, the birth of the American cabaret and the commercial institution of sex in advertising for the sale of products of mainly male as alcohol and tobacco consumption.34
Bernard Natan is one of the first directors to known pornography, abandoning the anonymity and getting a variety of titles, in which he same acted occasionally, introduced subjects such as bisexuality, homosexuality and masochism to pornographic films. Le menage moderne du Madame Butterfly (1920) is regarded as the first pornographic movie in portraying homosexual sexual activity (sex masculino-masculino and femenino-femenino sex), film which was headlined by the same Bernard Natan and discredited others.3 43 Some pornographic films (some considered as historical film or classified in the category lost film) between 1905 and 1930 include: La Coiffeuse (1905), Mousquetaire au Restaurant (c. 1920), L’Atelier Faiminette (1921), Agenor Fait a Levage (1925), L’Heure du Thé (1925), La Voyeuse (c. 1924), La Fessee à l’ École (c. 1925), Mr. Abbot Bitt Convent at (c. 1925) and Massages (1930).
In the 1920′s, in the jazzscene, are publications of uneven distribution called Tijuana Bible (English: Tijuana bible), publications of great popularity between the years 1920 to 1940 which were characterized by present sexual scenes of own fiction involving characters with personalities from politics, celebrities from the film and characters with copyright, such as the characters of Fleischer Studiosthe characters of Walt Disney Animation and comic strips in the beginning of century newspapers.44 Betty Boop, created by the Fleischer brothers de Fleischer Studios, is a clear example of the sexualized culture of the period Pre-code and the direct basis of erotic cartooncharacter representing a sexualized woman of the Jazz was (known as flappers), which had to be redesigned in a way less “provoativa” at the entrance of the Hays Code.45
The nude and Eroticism in art, between 1900 and 1930, were fully introduced and normlizados as an artistic technique and element common in plastic arts, appreciably in the paintings fauves of group dances by Henri Matisse paintings precisionistas of sailors urinating or masturbating by Charles Demuth. Nudity in art ceased to represent great controversy because it is artistic works that sought to emphasize the natural beauty and the aesthetic perfection of the human body.
It was bombshell (1930-1959)
The Hays code comes into force in the year of 1934 as a measure to reduce the immoral considered representations in the audiovisual media which had prevailed in the first decades of the life of the film. Pornography becomes an issue controversial and negative in American society from the first half of the 20th century, due to the religious fans to “end the Vice and Sin” of religious philosophies as Evangelical Christianity and the Movement of latter day Saints, as well as government intervention and the culture of the post-war that they understand to masturbation as destructive methods that they damaged the physical health of mendeveloping methods and alternative cures ranging from the consumption of “miraculous” encouragement to the electroshock therapy (used for the treatment of illnesses considered mental illness at the time, homosexuality and transgenderism).46 47 48
Poratada of such Weird (March 1938).
Pornography becomes virtually non-existent until the last years of the Decade of the 50′s, years in which the Hays code starts to weaken, on the other hand, eroticism was present in softer artistic versions as the sensational stories of the pulp, art and design endomorph of superheroes in the comic Golden was pin-up. The works considered obscene would be seized or closed, in addition to a prison sentence for the author of this, which made the sexually explicit works in anonymous works and distribution uneven or, simply, subject to the General rules of censorship.4 31 In the 1930 and 1940s an exploitative form of cinema that was marketed as a Cautionary film (precautionary) is popularized in stories tabloid with explicit sex, consumption of drugs, prostitution, homosexuality, fornication, miscegenation and abortion, which showed as a measure to alert parents of the “dangers” that their adolescent children were exposed; the films had a great commercial success.49
Literature pulp comes great popularity from the 1930′s, characterized by its simple binding, distribution cheaper, their conspicuous covers with violent or erotic scenes, and his stories focused on the fiction of exploitation as sex, consumption of drugs, the occult , and violence. The comic is enshrined in the 30′s with the mass publication of supernatural characters that fight the criminals, characters with muscular bodies and equipment outfits that generated several controversies in later years with the book by Fredric Wertham Seduction of the Innocent (1954) in which is claimed that comics design contained references to the naked, fascismcommunism and homosexuality (theories that go hand in hand with the political oppositions of Nuclear Terror and conform to the policies of the McCarthyism).50 In the literature pulp become more popular genres such as the Spicy and Saucy, gender dedicated to the heterosexual male audience that depicted fantasy stories starring an adventurous, brave, and violent male character who was devoted to combating dangers to rescue a female in danger, giving rise to the periodical literature dedicated to the gentlemen (Gentlemen s Magazine).51 52 In 1947 the Bizarre magazine under the direction of John Willie, magazine specializing in photography fetish that launched to fame to the model Bettie Page, but that disappeared a few years later by economic problems and legal disputes.
Cover of Yank, the Army Weekly with Betty Anne Cregan (1945).
From the Decade of the 30′s calls are “men’s magazines” with publishers as Gentlemen completo Quarterly in 1931 and Esquire in 1933, magazines that year, devoted their pages to the publication of erotic photography to attract to the heterosexual male audience. “Men’s magazines” with erotic content are born in the United States during the Second World War, emerging as a moral incentive (moral booster) distributed by government agencies for male soldiers on the fronts of war and as a way of advertising to attract male attention in the enlistment and voluntary combat.53 The distribution of magazines with art pin-up among members of the Navy and United States Navy emerged with the army magazine Yank, the Army Weekly, in order to represent an incentive for soldiers not to hire sexual services with prostitutes and not to acquire a sexually transmitted disease such as syphilis, which strongly affected the world troops during the second world war and disease that was stopped with the successful incorporation of the penicillin as a treatment in the mid-1940s.52 53
The pin-up or cheesecake was a distinctive style of painting and photography that prevailed in the period of censorship against pornography between 1890 and 1950, taking their higher production between 1940 and 1950; pin-up art was characterized by present provocative images of women, in a way that is not considered obscenity, or pornography, glamour, beauty, coquetry and naivety, art which include works by Gil Elvgren.52 The term bombshell was a popular term between 1940 and 1950, used to define what today is known as symbol sexualfemenino (English: sex symbol), definiedo celebrities actresses who made the fame of her beauty as Marilyn Monroe, Grace Kelly and Bette Davis, as well as artists pinup as French Rafferty and Jane Greer.54
After the second world war and with the arrival of the Baby Boom, is the American culture and the American Way of Life, and with it, their ambitions to strengthen to the country for the war that is coming with the Soviet bloc, so the Government begins to promote campaigns to introduce the culture of sport and physical activity in order to strengthen the soldiers.55 Before this growing culture of health, began to appear some catalogues, treatments and novel products for burning calories and the improvement of muscle mass, as well as specialized fitness and bodybuilding magazines assuming these practices as their own masculinity. In this scenario is the male counterpart of the pinup, beefcake, style of photography and publications related to that they portrayed musclemen in athletic poses with surface intended to distribute these pamphlets as a fitnessmagazine, but secretly homosexual view of its author and designed for the open consumption of gay and bisexual men. Art beefcake include artists such as Bob Mizer, Goerge Quaintance and Danny Fitzgerald, as well as publications such as Physique Pictorial and The Male Figure arising in similar format a catalogue of modeling which appeared photos of young bodybuilders, with a list of their capabilities and their measures and, often, posing in thong or a jock strap to evade the rules of censorship and allegations of homosexuality and sodomy.4 56
In the year of 1952, the Supreme Court of the United States determines that the film is protected by the first amendment and the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution n (case Joseph Burstyn, Inc v Wilson), emphasizing freedom of expression as an element of the production in the audio-visual media, which will step to the birth of the exploitation film in the years to come.3 In 1953 it appears the magazine Playboy, magazine founded by Hugh Hefner with the intention of claiming the sexual lifestyle of the man of middle class, magazine, which became the first pornographic magazine of mass distribution in the same year with the centerfold of Marilyn Monroe, although the magazine was in several controversies for obscenity until 1957.
Home of The Third Sex (1959).
After the second world war are youth groups opposed to the philosophies of Government and military policies, critalizandose subcultures as the greasers and the hipster in the 1940s, whose identity included musical appreciation, consumption and sexuality relaxed, giving way to the Beat generation.57 At the end of the 40′s and early 50′s, Alfred Kinsey published a series of demographic studies in considered them masturbation and homosexual attraction, studies that revolutionized American thought and detonated homosexual reflecting movements than masturbation and homosexuality were much more common than is thought.58 59 The Beat generation was characterized by extensive critique the policies of the American Government and conservative society, introducing themes such as agnosticism, alternative spirituality, drug use and a general idea of tolerance towards segregated races and the LGBT, current which include authors such as Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs.60
In the Decade of the 50′s are more explicit genres of pulp as the Men completo Adventure, gender dedicated to the male audience that contained unrealistic stories that claimed to be true, by a survivor man to Realtors of imminent death, attacked by animals, attacked by women desiring sex, attacked by communist armies, etc.61 62 63 Thus, at the end of the Decade of the 50′s also appear more explicit approaches as the of the editorial Greeleaf Publications, publishing anonymous authors who was involved in several controversies in its history for posting pornographic stories and, often, with allusions to the explicit sex, group sex, casual sex, adultery, miscegenation, murder, BDSM and homosexuality.64
In the year of 1957 the Supreme Court of the United States of America determines that the Hicklin Test (parameters to consider how obscene work) was invalid and that it would consider case of objection in the case where the material is considered as obscene by a majority standard and lack of artistic value (Roth v United States )).3 This case allowed the commercial sale of pornography with quality art, which would become art when this show genitals exposed female (jurisdiction over the naked male as obscene continued until 1962), kicking off the semi-legal pornography for heterosexual men known as pubic wars period and allowing to magazines like Playboy continue in the market in the 1960′s as “artistic photography” magazine and respectable journalism articles.
It was a sexploitation (1960-1969)
At the beginning of the Decade of the 60′s, the Hays Code began to weaken due to the artistic insistence of protection of the first amendment and the new parameters of obscenity (sex is different from obscene) appearing after legal changes in U.S. laws, giving rise to the golden age of Sexploitation, current exploitation film that emphasizes the sexual details and nude, with a production of B movies and exhibited in special theaters called theatres grindhouse (direct history of porn cinemas emerged in the 1970′s, dedicated to presenting movies exploitation and forced to follow rules of admission to limited entry to senior).65 66
Promotional Promises! Promises! (1963).
The Sexploitation genre was highly popular in the years 60′s, using erotic advertising which covered just the official censorship requirements and who warned that the entrance was restricted to adults; Despite their legal attachments, cinema sexploitation was frequently embroiled in controversies of obscenity.65 Some films of the genre include: The Twilight Girls (1961), Nude on the Moon (1961), Daughter of the Sun (1962), House of Women (1962), Satan in High Heels (1962), Scum of the Earth! (1963), Lorna (1964), Faster, Pussycat! Kill! Kill! (1965), Orgy of the Dead (1965), Mudhoney (1965), I Am Curious (1967), Space-Thing (1968), The Smashing Bird I Used to Know (1969), Language of Love (1969) and The Secret Sex Lives of Romeo and Juliet (1969). The Sexploitation reaches its maximum level of production in the 1970s with the arrival of the Porno Chic, making use of new genres like the Nunsploitation, the Women in Prison and the Nazisploitation.
In 1962 the Supreme Court of the United States of America determines, after retaining some journals beefcake of the flow postal as obscene and “not IntegrACTION”, which the male nude must conform to the same parameters of obscenity that applied to the female nude since 1957 (MANual Enterprises v. Day).4 In this new stream of photography male homoerotia are artists like Jim French (founder of the company COLT Studio Group, producer of pornography gay that will have great importance in the period of the porno chic and the AIDS crisis), whose publications were published under the pseudonym Rip Colt and filmmakers from the film experimental as Kenneth Anger with Scorpio Rising (1964) and Andy Warhol with films like Blow Job (1964) Vinyl (1965) and Flesh (1968). In the mid 60′s is a formal version of the LGBT Liberation Movement, which will intensify from the year 1969 at the Stonewall riots, caracterzandose by the agenda that ensures the effectiveness of the movement is based on the sexual visibility.59 In the gay culture comes to light the subculture leather, characterized by the influence underground sexual subculture greaser and the hipermasculinismo, which will flourish until the 1970′s.4
The subculture hippie is fundamental in the development of the sexual revolution and the transition of social ideals to the period of post-modernism cultural, since they impose a philosophy of relaxed sexuality that was incuyente and tolerant subjects convicted socially as fornication (changing marital ideals towards women that linked it to chastity and modesty), the interracialidad (changing social visions on the blending of races and favoring the movement for civil rights in) United_States), homosexuality (favoring the political emergence of LGBT identity and its subsequent social movements) and alternative sex (popularized ideas that redefined sexual practices such as sex, Tantric, spiritual sex, group sex, casual sex and the heteroflexibility).67 68 69 The second wave of feminism was born in the second half of the 20th century with the international publication of Le Deuxième Sexe (The second sex; 1949) Simone de Beauvoir in 1953.70 The movement is influenced by the over-the-counter oral contraceptives and the emergence of literature which analysed critically the traditional positions of sexism, procreating freedom and gender roles in women as trials Sex and the Single Girl (1961) by Helen Gurley Brown and Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique (1963).71 72
In the year of 1965 appears English Penthouse magazine under the direction of Bob Guccione, but gets international reach with the publication in the United States in the year 1969 with the main intention of competing with the contents of the Playboymagazine, characterized by photography much more risky that showed female genitalia and pubic hair, an intent to attract the male audience seeking scenes more risqué I. In following years, Penthouse redefined pornography, including photo hardcore sex penetrative, besides being the first magazine to show vulvas and years female graphically.73
In the year of 1969 the Supreme Court of Justice of the United States of America withdraws the charges raised against a man who had pornography on video for personal use (Stanley v Georgia )).3 In the same year, Denmark becomes the first country to legalize pornography, which resulted in the high production of movies with pornographic material between the years 1970 to 1974.74
Porno chic (1970-1989)
See also: Golden age of porn
The recent legalisation of pornography in Denmark allowed the production of two fundamental documentaries on the history of pornography: Censorship in Denmark: A New Approach (1970) and Sexual Freedom in Denmark (1970), documentaries that were publicly exhibited in United States. Censorship in Denmark: A New Approach (1970) contained various forms of pornography and real sex, starting the category of real sex (English: unsimulated sex) in the film mainstream challenging concepts such as simulated sex, although this category already had some background in European films as Un Chant d’amour (1950), Gift (1966) and the documentary series They Call Us Misfits (1967).74 Documentaries evaded policies of censorship in the United States by its “eduativo content” that formalized a theme of “social importance”, redefining American morales on the open display of pornography.3 In the early 70′s begin to occur on a massive scale, large number of erotic or pornographic films in Denmark which highlights the series of movies Bedside-films (1970-1976) and the Zodiac-films (1973-1978) film series.
Promotional of Deep Throat (1972).
Mona the Virgin Nymph (1970) is the first pornographic film to get wide distribution and economic revenue. The film speaks of a woman named Mona who promises his mother to remain Virgin up to marriage; legal controversies, the original film had to be displayed without acting credits, under an anonymous production (later would turn out which was produced by Bill Osco and drigida by Michael Benveniste and Howard Ziehm) which it circulated by various porn cinemas and theatres grindhouse in major United States cities.75 A year later, Boys in the Sand (1971) becomes the first pornographic movie gay of more open distribution and raising economic, in addition to being the first pornographic movie on displaying acting credits and the first pornographic film in parody the title of a movie (parody of the title of the film The Boys in the Band )).76
Deep Throat (1972) is consecrated as the film pornographic greater distribution and collection of profits in the 1970′s, enshrined as an icon of the sexual revolution and an icon of porn chic (was Golden of pornography), period in which see pornography became something chic (stylish, classy, popular).3 Deepthroat included an absurd plot connecting the sex scene, as well as a soundtrack chillout with various tracks from genres such as funk and lounge. The film had a powerful in United States and other countries, although it was subject to the jurisdictions on pornography, so its display in some locations in the United States was prohibited. The film contained credits with humorous pseudonyms as “Lou Perry” for producer Louis Peraino and “Linda Lovelace” for the main actress Linda Susan Boreman, as well as occasional humor and sound effects in the background such as campaigns and pyrotechnics to emphasize Lovelace orgasms .77
After the riots at the Stonewall Inn in 1969, the LGBT community won greater social visibility, this trend emerges a new culture of gay men in California known as the Castro clone, culture that control the characteristics of the homosexual male of the working class.78 In the same way, sale to popular culture subculture leather , which had remained secret for several decades since the second world war, fundamental subculture in the homosexual perspective of pornography and the sex industry. Tom of Finland is the maximum icon of the leather, which is responsible for positioning the leather and other fetishes (sailors, laborers, bikers and cowboys) within the imaginary of pornography gay with his comics and art hipermasculinista that exalted the size of the genitals and buttocks of his characters and scenes of sex hipersexualizadas that emphasized rough, BDSM and cruising .79
In 1973 the Supreme Court of Justice of the United States of America determines to consider how obscene work must follow the parameters of the Miller Test: (1) If an average person, whereas general standards, considers the work as a work of prurient interest; (2) whether the work depicts or describes acts punishable by law; (3) if the work lacks artistic, political or scientific value (Miller v California). The work would be only considered obscene when these three parameters were present, which finally allowed “legality of pornography”, as the majority of the film and printed works did not meet these three parameters.3 This legal amendment and the popularity of the VHS as a domestic device, allowed the mass distribution of pornography in this format until the end of the 1990′s, when the Internet begins to gain popularity and is industrialized format DVD.
Promotional of Farmer’s Daughters (1976).
Some films pornographic, significant of the period porno chic after Deepthroat, include: Behind the Green Door (1972), The Devil in Miss Jones (1973), Resurrection of Eve (1973), The Cheerleaders (1973), Memories Within Miss Aggie (1974), The Private Afternoons of Pamela Mann (1974), Flesh Gordon (1974), Sensations (1975), The Story of Joanna (1975), A Dirty Western (1975), Alice in Wonderland (1976), Through the Looking Glass (1976), The Opening of Misty Beethoven (1976), Spirit of Seventy Sex (1976), Inside Jennifer Welles (1977), Debbie Does Dallas (1978), Pretty Peaches (1978), Inside Désirée Cousteau (1979), Taboo (1980), Talk Dirty to Me (1980), Insatiable (1980), Nightdreams (1981), Café Flesh (1982), and Reel People (1984). Some producers of porn chic include Bill Osco, Alex de Renzy and Radley Metzger; some actors include: Linda Lovelace, Marilyn Chambers, Annette Haven, Georgina Spelvin, John Holmes, Johnnie Keyes, Kay Parker, Robert Kerman, Annie Sprinkle, Candida Royalle, Juliet Anderson, Harry Reems, John Leslie, Ron Jeremy, Paul Thomas, Desireé Cousteau, Jennifer Welles, Gloria Leonard, Billy Dee, Lisa De Leeuw, Jacqueline Lynn, Colleen Brennan, Nina Hartley, Seka, Traci Lords, Taija Rae and Vanessa del Rio.
Some porn chic gay pornography films include: Nights in Black Leather (1973), That Boy (1974), Kansas City Trucking Co. (1976), Del Paso Wrecking Corp. (1978), a Night at the Adonis (1978), L.A. Tool & Die (1979) and The Bigger the Better (1984). Jean-Daniel Cadinot is one of the most famous period of porn chicporn gay prodcutores. Some actors in the porn chic include: Zebedy Colt, Jamie Gillis, Peter Berlin and Jack Wrangler.
In the era of the exploitation and the film gore in the 70′s is a film that defined the feminist positions on pornography, Snuff (1976). The film portrayed the story of a woman wrapped in an occult sect in a region of Argentina, which is murdered after being sexually abused by men of unknown identity. The film, despite having real sex scenes, was not listed as a pornographic movie and was promoted as film snuff (months later it was discovered that murder seen in the film was acted, although popular urban legends of real murder in movies and, of course, the term snuff in popular culture). The film blew up the feminist critique to portray the murder without sense of an innocent woman who is subjected to sexual abuse, fuelling criticism of sexism in the pornography and the subjugation of women to the pleasure of the male sex and prostitution industry. This philosophy intensified the feminist sex wars (discussions between 1970s and 1980s who tried the positions on subjects such as pornography, the sex industry, prostitution, homosexuality, bisexuality, Transgenderism and BDSM feminist) and divided the feminism in two ideologies: feminism anti-child that views pornography as a symbol sexist repression and subjugation of women, and the pro-sex feminism that views pornography as a representation of empowerment and autonomous sexual freedom for women.3
Before the new feminist scenes and the diversity of views on pornography, appears the Playgirl magazine in 1973, devoting the first pornographic magazine with feminist approach (defining what today is known as feminist pornography or female friendly). Playgirl appears focused on the heterosexual women as a response contra-sexista to Playboymagazine, as he was characterized by photography style beefcake of men physically attractive (reason why a considerable consumer percentage are gay men) and, occasionally, photographs of scenes hardcore who were more sensitive to feminine taste, as emphasized the erotic and sensual elements that contrasted with the burda publications such as Playboy pornography Hustler and Penthouse.
Home of My First Sex Teacher vol 18.
In the mid 90′s shows pornography in DVD format, allowing one greater erotic material distribution. Between 1995 and 2000, several producers of pornography are incorporated into Internet and open the official sites of its brands, such as Playboy magazine in 1994 and Hustler magazine in 1995. That same year, joins the reach of the Internet service of videoconference that made possible the capitalization of live cams and cyber sexservices. Anonymity, accessibility and affordability to the Internet became a landscape deposit of pornography from the year 2000, allowing access to its users to content, videos, pictures, games and services such as sex cams and hookups, although he also allowed an anonymous scope of illegal pornography.
At the end of the 90′s, the actress Jenna Jameson is consecrated as The Queen of Porn (porn Queen). Jameson became the image of the industry of pornography with a career of fifteen years (1993-2008) that placed it as the most famous pornographic actress with more than 100 films including: Up and Cummers 11 (1994), Flashpoint (1998), Virtual Sex with Jenna Jameson (1999) and Brianna Loves Jenna (2001). The best-selling pornographic film in history is the sex tape of Pamela Anderson and Tommy Lee.80
Public Pornhub, Redtube , YouPorn video host sites appear in the second half of the 2000′s, currently brands managed by the company’s computer intelligence Manwin Media (MindGeek). Manwin Media is the largest pornography online in the world with a Studios pornographic as Brazzers, Men.com, Digital Playground, Reality Kings, Mofos, JuicyBoys and Tranny Surprise, in addition to pages of video sharing as Pornhub, Redtube, YouPorn, Tube8, XTube, Spankwire, Keezmovies, Extremetube , Sextube and gay. Online pornography studies recorded, currently, its sales in subscriptions and memberships of guaranteed access, that most incorporate online stores that offer the productions company in DVD or Blu-rayformat as well as sex toys, clothing, memorabilia, etc. The vast majority of the pornographic studies incorporate the HD technology for the filming of their productions, as well as advertising on video host sites and dating services online and hookups. Sites like Vimeo and Tumblr, by their not-so-strict terms of content, allow the circulation of pornography on their sites, despite not being pornographic sites, which denotes a new culture (Generation XXX) used to pornography.3
Types of pornography
Although several classifications according to participants, the theme or the positions can be performed, a widespread form of grouping the pornographic genres is from least to most explicit (whether the positions of pose or represented shares). In this way, they would be:
Main article: Softcore porn
It is the pornographic genre in which sex scenes not shown explicitly. In film and television, in particular, does not include close-ups of genitals (male or female) and not shown in detail penetration and fellatio. The actors or models tend to cover a part of their bodies. This genre have practiced it and practice many women and men more or less famous, like Demi Moore in the film Striptease. Also used in advertising, although this usage has been criticized by feminist organizations.
Mediumcore or conventional pornography
It is the one where the models teach the whole body in more or less provocative positions.
The famous Playboy and Penthouse magazines are perhaps the best known examples of this type of pornography. Although there is ratings that placed them in the previous section.
Main article: Hardcore porn
It is the pornographic genre more extreme, because it shows explicitly sexual intercourse, either vaginal, anal or oral, or appliances or any other kind of utensils.
This type of pornography is subdivided according to sexual orientation: heterosexual, homosexual (male or female) and bisexual. The first pornographic films and the vast majority of current films are heterosexual; gay films are the second most sold and produced. The variant of the genre exists also transsexual (men transformed into women through the use of hormones and use of clothing) and bestiality (sexual acts with animals).
The post-porn seeks to deliberately subvert the rules of traditional porn (and, thus, sexuality models that underlie it) for political ends (serve medium to the articulation of other Sexualities possible, non-hegemonic canons).81
The ‘post-porn’ concept was introduced by the erotic photographer Wink van Kempen and popularized by activist, sex worker and artist Annie Sprinkle. Develops in the Decade of the 90′s in the U.S. and Canada connected with activism, queer and the post-feminismo82 . It emerged as a new statute for the sexual representation: through a deconstruction of heteronormativity and naturalization, Sprinkle made us think of sex as an open category for the use and appropriation of pleasure further than the framework of victimization of the censorship and taboo. The movement is now active and results correspond to a creative and revolutionary environment that calls us to reflect on what is a pornographic image, what is genderand all that, ultimately, arise the so-called transfeminism83 84
Is the job of the postpornografia make Sexualities other and new ways of fucking jump to the public scene and, therefore, politician; his critical speech reviews the history of porn from post-feminismo and the fights gay to win a space of representation and consumption of sexuality and allow the visibility of the other, previously absent in pornography. Post-porn, understood as a representation of the queer movement, housed in its Center dynamics of empowerment, closely related to strategies of appropriation; It’s taking of power in itself, but also a representation of possible appropriations and creator of dissident realities of normative discourse.85
Map of the world of pornography (18 +) laws
Pornography is legal
Pornography is legal with restrictions
Pornography is illegal
Information not available
The legal status of pornography depends on each country and the type of material. In some countries all forms of pornography are illegal, while others have very liberal laws on adult pornography. The actors involved in pornographic films must be of legal age.
In the United States, the restrictions that they have self-imposed companies forcing players to undergo medical examinations regularly in order to detect sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS. In this country there is a network of specific rooms for all films showing hair pubic (is the limit marked by its legislation for labeling a film as pornographic).
Child pornography is banned in all countries.[source?]
Many laws restricting pornography showing violent acts with animals.
In some countries Islamic, all kinds of pornography is illegal, to the point that can affect even banknotes (for example, a French bill that reproduced the well-known painting The liberty leading the people was considered pornographic in some countries fundamentalist, in this work the female central character shows a bare breast).[source?]
In the People’s Republic of China all forms of pornography are illegal.86
Views on pornography
There are disagreements about the neutrality in the point of view of the current version of this article or section.
The talk page you can see the discussion about this.
Salman Rushdie defending pornography as an indicator of freedom of expression.
There is a current of thought which regards pornography as a new form of art, which aims to show the beauty of human sexuality. Those who hold this view argue that many forms of art in the beginning were despised, undervalued or misunderstood, as happened with works of art from the Post-Impressionism of the Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh, which never recognized any significant value to his works during his lifetime. So much so that even a Lady of her time used one of his paintings to plug a hole of your chicken coop. They state that the world is constantly changing and has always changed, change the interests or appear new interests, and changes the art are new forms of art.
Some people, like the producer of pornography Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie, have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society must be judged based on willingness to accept pornography.87 This theory is reinforced by the fact that very few dictatorial regimes allow or allowed pornography; whether these confessional, like Spain ‘s Francisco Franco, or Communist, as Democratic Kampuchea.[source?]
On the other hand, its existence causes a strong rejection in certain cultures or conservative sectors of society. Against pornography, it is argued that:
You can become a harmful addictive habit for the individual.
It is degrading to women.
Which is used for commercial purposes.
That pornography exploits the libido, erotizando brain.
That this induces non-formed criterion objetizar to the opposite sex.
That individuals with poor moral and cultural formation can be induced through reading or viewing, exploring his own lecherous fantasies violation ethical values and considering it offensive to morality.
That pornography is only for individuals with formed approach.
That it distorts the sexual act as the highest manifestation of love.
Being a manifestation of sexual distress, caused by social repression, you defeat the Act of all eroticism in the everyday life as a couple, thus carrying the dissatisfaction and the desire for new experiences.
The pornography criticism comes primarily from two directions: on the one hand, of the conservative and religious, and on the other in some sectors feminists.[source?]
Religious conservatives brand pornography immoral and believe that sex is reserved for the married couples and the proliferation of pornography leads to an increase of what they call immoral behaviours in society. Religions with a large number of followers around the world, such as Christianity, condemn the existence of pornography. For example, to this religion sexual intercourse should aim to be a source of mutual happiness that helps unite a heterosexual couple and that procreationto occur by means of this Act. Also Islam categorically condemns pornography.
Many forms of pornography, would therefore be against this concept.
Some feminist critics, especially Americans, consider that pornography degrades women used as sex objects for the enjoyment of men, since in the vast majority of films and photographs, in fact, man has a key role. They also criticize her for being the vast majority aimed at a male audience, usually heterosexual, and therefore provide a very one-sided view of sexuality.
It tends to give a special rejection, in connection with the safe free porn sites in its hardest, such as which exploits the sadism, sadomasochism, bestiality, pedophilia, coprophilia or necrophilia.
Other studies that have highlighted the negative consequences of pornography are as follows:
Teachers Dolf Zillman of the University of Indiana and Jennings Bryant of the University of Houston found that repeated exposure to pornography has as a result a satisfaction decreased with the couple, a decrease in the valuation of loyalty and one increase in the importance of sex without commitment.
Jenna Jameson, the Porn Queen. With more than 200 movies, is the Porn actress with more success in the history.88
A study by Reo Dr. Christensen89 of Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, found that pornography leaves the impression on viewers that sex has no relationship with intimacy; It is not related to love, commitment or marriage; that bizarre forms of sex are the greatest satisfaction (as bestiality) and that irresponsible sex has no adverse consequences.
In addition, in a series of studies carried out by the doctors Elizabeth Oddone-Paolucci and Mark Genuis of the National Foundation for research on family and education (National Foundation for Family Research and Education), as well as the University of Calgary’sDr. Claudio Violato, numerous changes in perceptions regarding sexuality and sexual behaviour were observed after repeatedly exposing volunteers to pornography (i.e.(, six weekly sessions of 1 hour). These include the trivialization of rape as a criminal offence, the increase of insensitivity towards female sexuality and dissatisfaction with sexual intercourse.
On the other hand, some other studies have shown the absence of a link between pornography and sexual violence. It is the case of the sociological study of the Canadian researcher Simon Louis Lajeunesse, Associate Professor of the University of Montreal, who after researching the topic two years came to the conclusion that for the majority of users is, rather, satisfy a marginal fantasy because of its monosexuality (original expression of the French philosopher Michel Foucault) and that would be unfair to extrapolate pathological cases. The findings of their study were, in summary, as follows:
All interviewees (a total of two thousand college students, mostly women), a group of 20, all heterosexual, agreed to talk about her habits of viewing pornography.
All respondents indicated that they were looking for pornography on the Internet.
Virtually all the men watching pornographic videos, but that does not affect their relationships with women, nor their sexual behavior. For example, men who watch pornography are not, in reality, more violent sexually than those who do not look at them.
A significant difference was that single people consumed twice more pornography (three sessions of 42 minutes per week, on average) than those living in couple (1.7 sessions 27 minutes, on average).
Singles or not, almost all come pornography alone, and do not wish to share this intimate moment with anyone else, not even with your partner.
Some users of pornography integrated it into a broader program.
Another frequent behaviour is that males tend to select the scenes that they like and pressed the button of “fast forward” (FFWW) in which dislike them or that do not interest them. It is, in the latter case, of collective violence or, also, ejaculation scenes, that users were often “disgusting”.
Males looking for pornography fantasies that already had when they had their first sexual encounter, generally around the age of 12. However, his “script” fades to meet reality.
Both the hypothesis of the mirror (the assumption that consuming pornography people will want to carry out, in real life, what they saw on the screen) and the catharsis hypothesis (which indicates that pornography frees the users of some drives and “purify” the Viewer) are nil. In the opinion of the author of the study, males clearly separate his fantasies in real life.90 91
Just as happens with prostitution, feminism has opinions divided with regard to pornography, that debate is framed in the feminist sex wars , beginning with the 1980′s.
A stream, called abolitionist and represented by Catharine Mackinnon and Andrea Dworkin, are using pornography as a model to explain the political and sexual oppression of women. Under the slogan of Robin Morgan “pornography is the theory, the practice violation, condemn the representation of female sexuality conducted by means of communication as a form of promotion of gender-based violence, sexual and political submission of women.
Another current, called ‘re and of which Ellen Willis is one of the pioneers, criticizes the complicity of the abolitionist feminism with the patriarchal structures that repress and control the body of women in heterosexual society. For Willis, feminist abolitionist returned to the State the power to regulate the representation of sexuality, granting double to power to an ancient institution of patriarchal origin. Anti-porn in Canada movement results especially representations were, according to Beatriz Preciado, in censorship on films and publications from minority sexualities, lesbian (by the presence of dildos92 ) and the lesbian sadomasochists (which the State Commission considered degrading for women), while that on representations stereotyped of women in straight porn were not censored.93
Reduction of sales
In recent years, the world production of pornography has been severely affected by the problem of the unauthorized copies online, who have put the porn available to many at extremely low cost. In video online as (YouPorn, RedTube) sites, file hosting services (RapidShare, Megaupload), p2p networks (BitTorrent, MLDonkey), and other site users can see or download all kinds of porn films, from small fragments of 10 minutes, to complete films of 1 hour or more, for completely free, which has caused huge financial losses to the industry.
In the United States, the world’s leading producer of porn, leading companies have registered declines in profits of between 25% and 40%. At the end of 2010 ran rumours that major studios had been forced to dismiss numerous actors and actresses and to decrease its production, while the smaller studies had disappeared. In Europe the situation seems to be similar.
In Latin America, the unauthorized copying of the materials has had significant effects in Brazil and Argentina, the two main producer countries of gender in the region. The first Brasileirinhas company admitted in 2008 that its sales had fallen considerably, although without mentioning numbers, while 100% Video, the main chain of video stores in the country, decided to withdraw the DVD pornos of your shelves, due to lack of customer demand. In Argentina, meanwhile, both producing companies that existed in 2009, one ceased its activities, and the other is on the verge of closing.